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[OM] How is the noise reduced in panos? i.e. how, why and what type of

Subject: [OM] How is the noise reduced in panos? i.e. how, why and what type of noise is reduced?
From: Mike Gordon via olympus <olympus@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 14 Dec 2021 23:41:41 +0000 (UTC)
Cc: usher99@xxxxxxx
Why I am asking as contemplating trying a full arc  milky way pano early this 
spring if conditions allow.  As the subject is moving will plan on only 4 shots 
frame to stack or else the frames may not stich well due to the moving target.  
It is clear with stacking programs like Sequater or just median stack in PS the 
noise reduction is f(sqrt # in stack).
With downsampling, what is happening and how much is noise reduced?   Does it 
matter if it is shot noise, readout noise, quantization noise or dark current?  
  I doubt the stitching software stacks the overlapping areas. 
The noise between pixels is not correlated but the signal must be at least in 
part so that must be part of it. So if one doubles the resolution does that 
reduce noise as if stacking 2 images  i.e by 1 stop? .  My gut says it is less.
Does high freq noise get whacked more--seems it might be. 

The work flow on these images is going to be daunting and the chance of a 
technical mishap at 3AM in the cold and dark is great especially where I want 
to go.  Not a whisper to Marnie yet, please. 

No time for noise, Mike

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